cold fusion

In the scientific and pseudo-scientific press for many years of tense debate about the reality of cold fusion and the generation of heat in devices of all sorts, the amount of which exceeds the amount of electrical or mechanical energy supplied to these devices from outside ( Overunity Generators).


For the first time such a phenomenon described Slugin in his book "Theory of electrolysis," published in 1881. One hundred years later, similar experiments at much higher technical level in the United States engaged in M. Fleischmann and S. Pons. In 1989, during the electrolysis of heavy water solution to palladium electrodes, they paid attention to the fact that the release of thermal energy exceeds applying an electric energy, and thus the appearance of the weak neutron flux. The latter indicates that there is a cold fusion [1]. They suggested that this is the reaction of nuclear fusion of deuterium atoms to form helium nuclei and neutron radiation, as occurs in the sun at temperatures of millions of degrees.

Three months after that under the pressure of "fire worshipers" cold fusion "closed." Fleischmann and Pons forced to renounce his discoveries and fired. Reputable scientific journals report that the effect does not exist.

But the genie was already out of the bottle, and drive it back is not so easy. The idea captured the imagination of millions. Western enthusiasts created the magazine "Cold Fusion", and then the annex - "Infinite Energy".

I will dwell only on one of them, which can be played not only in the classrooms of physics, but also in the kitchen. This work was performed in Moscow students I. Fangs and N. Schavruk MEPHI under the direction of (not the candidate of sciences and even the teacher!) V.G Grishin. Within six months after the beginning of the work he was selected to the International exhibition of youth scientific and technical projects "Expo-Science-2001", held in Grenoble (France) in the summer of 2001 for a trip to the exhibition management of the Institute was able to raise funds for only one - Freshman Ilya Klykova. He collected his own hands there demonstration plant, in which the cold fusion, and returned to Moscow with a diploma and a bunch of business cards from foreign scholars.

This installation is easy to do, says the correspondent of the magazine "Young technician" Ilyin, who described the story in the article "The Sun in a teacup". [2]

Installation (see. Figure) is a common electrolytic cell. It consists of a tank in which is located a cylindrical cathode of stainless steel. To a cathode soldered wire to the rectifier (soldering to stainless steel is used as a flux or a solution of zinc in hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid or a droplet).

The anode it is a rod of tungsten (as discovered by a group Grishina, the metal has the effect even larger than palladium). Tungsten rod is mounted on the lid of the tank, to it is pressed firmly against the clamp wire from another rectifier. To use a regulated power supply autotransformer with a bridge full-wave rectifier 10 A. The electrolyte served as a weak solution of common salt in distilled water.

To determine the thermal effect of the reaction was quite ordinary mercury thermometer to measure the increase in water temperature in the vessel, eliminating heat loss. Number of summing up the electricity was measured by a conventional domestic counter. You could also use an ammeter and voltmeter.

To enter the mode of energy, says Ilyin, it is necessary to gradually increase the tension by turning the knob of the autotransformer. Initially, you will see bubbles near the anode. This hydrogen is released. When the voltage reaches 30, there will be an orange glow. It began, says Ilyin, an arc discharge. Color it, he says, due to the spectral lines of sodium salt. Then with increasing discharge voltage is changed to the color purple. This, says the author retells the article, the color of the plasma with a temperature of 12,000 ° C. If a little more lift power, water becomes turbid and white. This time the most active of heat.

By bringing a similar installation in a thermos, and using rather rough measuring devices V.G Grishin measured the resulting effect.For every kilowatt hour of electricity wrapping up, says Ilyin, allocated 1,3 ± 0,15 kWh of thermal energy. Thus, the energy gain is obtained is not less than 15%, and the efficiency - 1.15 ... 1.45.

It would seem that we have confirmation of the opening of Fleischmann and Pons. But measuring the experimenters found no ionizing radiation, typical for most of the reactions of nuclear fusion. The question arises, due to what then excess energy is produced here?

Since Vladimir Grishin electrochemist first education (and a specialist in plasma physics in the second), says Ilyin, the first thing he suggested that here in the glow is not only known to all electrolytic dissociation of water into hydrogen and oxygen, and "polymerization" molecules water in the molecular associates types of clusters. And when bound in associates molecules are known to be released binding energy, ie heat. Even this can be explained by the appearance in the experiments described excessive heat. (Ilyin wrote a little bit wrong, here I had to pass a language children's magazine correspondent in the language of physics.)

However, if before the chemical believed that the clusters are described by formula (H 2 0) n> where n > 1, then Grishin assumed here in the form associates each atom of oxygen is not necessary, two hydrogen atoms, and less. Indeed, as shown by studies carried out in 1985-1990, at the Institute of power sources, reminds Ilyin, water molecules can be converted to the release of energy into the material H 10 O 8. But, according to

Vladimir Grishin, more accurate different formula: (H 2 O) 2 (OH) 6.

Whatever it was, in both cases, the association of water molecules in such or such associates shall be allocated free hydrogen, and in subsequent publications [3-5] V. Grishin with his students offer not only a generator of heat, but also the hydrogen generator.

Nuclear reactions are also not excluded, writes in his article Ilyin. But not so remarkable, what Pons and Fleischmann were waiting with their followers, and completely different, previously unknown to physicists. Electrochemists know, he explains that the electrolysis of ordinary water, the formation of hydrogen atoms through the adoption of hydrogen ions (protons) of free electrons from the cathode. But ordinary water always contains 0.015% heavy (deuterium) water. If it happens often enough electrolysis electron acceptance is not a proton 1 P and atomic nuclei of heavy hydrogen - deuterons 2 D.

At the same time, he suggested Grishin, can occur not only the formation of deuterium atoms, but also the formation of a special elementary particle "dineutron" (double neutron).

cold fusion

Demonstration plant; which IL Fangs went to an exhibition in Grenoble (picture borrowed from the article Ilyin "The sun in a glass of water").

The latter is formed when an electron is trapped in the shell of the atom, and the nonmediocre atomic nucleus (as in long-known K-capture). Living dineutron a very short time, said Grishin, but, being electrically neutral, when the time to get into the crystal lattice of tungsten, are able to penetrate directly into the atomic nucleus, because for them no longer exists Coulomb barrier. So in the nucleus of an atom of the metal may be just two extra neutron. At the same time, says Ilyin, the nuclear reaction takes place with the release of energy, and an isotope tungsten-184.

Thus, it concludes Ilyin, in such an electrolytic cell for the release of energy responsible two unusual process, "burning water" and the formation of the isotope tungsten.

All very interesting, and even wonderful. That's only nuclear reaction converting a conventional tungsten isotope 184 W authors mentioned publications for some reason did not write. And for some reason they have not written that all the theoretical basis of these processes - and "burning water" and "dineutron" and nuclear reactions with its participation - was published by me in [6], which was published in January 2000 , a year before the V. Grishin with companions took up the job. And they took of her, probably just because in their hands in 2000 got our monograph, which in their publications on this topic then there was not a single reference.

L.P Fominsk


1. Fleischmann M.J., Pons S.J. - J Elecfroanal. Chem., 1989\ v.261, №2, p.301-306.

2. Ilyin Sun in a glass of water. Satellite YUT- popular science digest ,, №4 / 2001. Website http: //jtdigest.narod. ru / dig4_ 0 J / ind 4200 / htm.

3. Fangs IL, Schovruk NV - Supervisors YA Popov, VG Grishin. - Plasma-electrochemical generators of heat // Scientific session MEPhI-2002. - Sat. nauchn. works in 14 volumes. Etc.- M .: MEPhI, 2002. - S.62-64.

4. Fangs IL, Copernicus SV Schovruk NV Development of the project "Plasma electrochemical generators of heat" / On-uchnyerukovoditeli: YA Popov, Professor, Ph.D., VG Grishin engineer. Site 1 / list.htm.

5. V. Grishin, canine IL, Copernicus SV Schavruk NV The anode electric discharge in electrolyte // Nauchnaya session MiFi 2003.- Sat. nauchn. works in 14 volumes. T.4. - M .: MiFi 2003.

6. Potapov YS, Fominsk LP Vortex energy and cold fusion from the standpoint of the theory of motion. - Chisinau-Cherkassy: OKO-Plus, 2000. - 387 p.