This invention relates to systems for the conversion of energy, inter alia in the form of what we will refer to for convenience as Tesla waves (see below), to conventional electrical energy.
Energy converters that are fed by local or environmental energy are usually explained by taking recourse to the notion that they convert zero point electromagnetic radiation (ZPE) to electric energy. The ZPE theories have gained a life of their own, as T. Kuhn has pointed out (in his “Black Body Theory and the Quantum“), after emerging from Planck’s second theory, specifically from the term 1/2 hυ in the new formula for oscillator energy. In 1913, Einstein and Stern suggested that motional frequencies contributing to specific heat fell into two categories — those that were independent of temperature and those that were not (e.g. rotational energy), leading them to conclude that zero-point energy on the order of 1/2 hυ ho was most likely. In the second part of their paper, however, they provided a derivation of Planck’s Law without taking recourse to discontinuity, by assuming that the value of the ZPE was simply hu. It is worth noting that Einstein had already in 1905 (“Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristichen Gesichtspunkt”, Ann. d. Phys, 17, 132) framed the problem of discontinuity, even if only heuristically, as one of placing limits upon the infinite energy of the vacuum state raised by the Rayleigh-Jcans dispersion law. According to Einstein, the Rayleigh-Jeans law would result in an impossibility, the existence of infinite energy in the radiation field, and this was precisely incompatible with Planck’s discovery—which suggested instead that at high frequencies the entroру of waves was replaced by the entropy of particles. Einstein, therefore, could only hope for a stochastic validation of Maxwell’s equations at high frequencies “by supposing that electromagnetic theory yields correct time-average values of field quantities”, and went on to assert that the vibration-eneigy of high frequency resonators is exclusively discontinuous (integral multiples of hυ).
Since then, ZPE theories have gone on a course independent from Planck’s second theory. The more recent root of modern ZPE theories stems from the work of H. Casimir who, in 1948, apparently showed the existence of a force acting between two uncharged parallel plates. Fundamentally the Casimir effect is predicated upon the existence of a background field of energy permeating even the ‘vacuum’, which exerts a radiation pressure, homogeneously and from all directions in space, on every body bathed in it. Given two bodies or particles in proximity, they shield one another from this background radiation spectrum along the axis (i.e. the shortest distance) of their coupling, such that the radiation pressure on the facing surfaces of the two objects would be less than the radiation pressure experienced by all other surfaces and coming from all other directions in space. Under these conditions, the two objects are effectively pushed towards one another as if by an attractive force. As the distance separating the two objects diminishes, the force pushing them together increases until they collapse one onto the other. In this sense, the Casimir effect would be the macroscopic analogy of the microscopic van der Waals forces of attraction responsible for such dipole-dipole interactions as hydrogen bonding. However, it is worth noting that the van der Waals force is said to tend to establish its normal radius, or the optimal distance between dipoles, as the distance where the greatest attractive force is exerted, beyond which the van der Waals forces of nuclear and electronic repulsion overtake the attraction force.
Subsequently, another Dutch physicist, M. Sparnaay, demonstrated that the Casimir force did not arise from thermal radiation and, in 1958, went on to attribute this force to the differential of radiation pressure between the ZPE radiation from the vacuum state surrounding the plates and the ZPE radiation present in the space between them. Sparnaay’s proposal is that a classical, nonquantal, isotropic and ubiquitous electromagnetic zero-point energy exists in the vacuum, and even at a temperature of absolute zero. It is further assumed that since the ZPE radiation is invariant with respect to the Lorentz transformations, it obeys the rulе that the intensity of its radiation is proportional to the cube of the frequency, resulting in an infinite energy density for its radiation spectrum.
What appeared to be the virtue of this reformulated theory was the notion that the vacuum no longer figured as pure space empty of energy, but rather as a space exposed to constantly fluctuating ‘fields of electromagnetic energy’.
Puthoff has utilized the isomorphism between van der Waals and Casimir forces to put forth the zero-point (ZP) energy theory of gravity, based on the interpretation that the virtual electromagnetic ZP field spectrum predicted by quantum electrodynamics (QED) is functionally equivalent to an actual vacuum state defined as a background of classical or Maxwellian electromagnetic radiation of random phases, and thus can be treated by stochastic electrodynamics (SED). Whereas in QED, the quanta are taken as virtual entities and the infinite energy of the vacuum has no physical reality, for SED, the ZPE spectrum results from the distortion of a real physical field and docs not require particle creation. Gravity then, could be seen as but the macroscopic manifestation of the Casimir force.
We do not dispute the fact that even in space absent matter there is radiant energy present which is not of a thermal nature. But we claim that this energy is not electromagnetic, nor is its energy spectrum infinite. That this is so stems not just from our opinion that it is high time that Einstein’s heuristic hypothesis should be taken as literally factual—in the dual sense that all electromagnetic energy is photon energy and all photons are local productions, but above all from the fact that it is apparent, from the experiments of Wang and his colleagues (Wang, Li, Kuzmich, A & Dogariu, A. “Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation”, Nature 406; #6793; 277), that the photon stimulus can propagate at supraluminal speeds and lies therefore well outside of any scope of electromagnetic theory, be this Maxwell’s classical approach taken up by ZPE theories, or Einstein’s special relativistic phenomenology of Maxwell’s theory. The fact is that if the light stimulus can propagate at speeds greater than those of light, then what propagates is not light at all, and thus not energy configured electromagnetically. Light is solely a local production of photons in response to the propagation of a stimulus that itself is not electromagnetic.
It is critical to understand that the implication from this that—aside from local electromagnetic radiation and from thermal radiation associated with the motions of molecules (thermo-mechanical energy), there is at least another form of
energy radiation which is everywhere present, even in space absent matter. Undoubtedly, it is that energy that prevents any attainment of absolute zero, for any possible local outpumping of heat is matched by an immediate local conversion of some of this energy into a minimum thermal radiation required by the manifolds of Space and Time. And undoubtedly also this radiation is ubiquitous and not subject to relativistic transformations (i.e. Lorentz invariant). What it is not, is electromagnetic radiation consisting of randomistic phases of transverse waves.
To understand this properly, one must summarize the differences from existing ZPE theories- and all these differences come down to the fact that this energy which is neither electromagnetic nor thermal per se (and is certainly not merely thermo-mechanical), has nevertheless identifiable characteristics both distributed across subtypes or variants and as well common to all of them.
Essentially the first subtype or variant consists of longitudinal massfree waves that deploy electric energy. They could well be called Tesla waves, since Tesla-type transformers can indeed be shown experimentally to radiate massfree electric energy, in the form of longitudinal magnetic and electric waves having properties not reduceable to photon energy or to ‘electromagnetic waves', and having speeds of displacement that can be much greater than the limit c for all strictly electromagnetic interactions.
One may well denote the second subtype by the designation of massfree thermal radiation, since it contributes to temperature changes—and, as obviously indicated by the impossibility of reaching an absolute zero of temperature, this contribution occurs independently of the presence of matter, or mass-energy, in Space. In other words, not all thermal radiation can be reduced to vibration, rotation and translation (drift motion) of molecules, i.e. to thermomechanical energy, because the properties of pressure and volume that determine temperature and affect matter, appear indeed to a great extent to be independent from matter, a fact which itself is responsible for the observed catastrophic and unexpected phase changes of matter and has required to this day the insufficient explanation offered semi-empirically by the Van der Waals Force Law.
Finally the third subtype may be designated latent massfree energy radiation—since it deploys neither charge, nor thermal or baroscopic effects, and yet it is responsible for 'true latent heat' or for the 'intrinsic potential energy' of a molecule. It is also responsible for the kinetoregenerative phenomenon whereby an electroscope performs a variable charge-mediated work against the local gravitational field.
The common characteristic of all three subtypes of massfree eneigy radiation is that they share the same nonclassical fine structure, written as follows for any energy unit, where c is any speed of light wave function, and the wavelength λand wave function W are interconnected as a function of the physical quality of the energy field under consideration:
If the electric variant of massfree radiation has a direct quantum equivalence, via the Duane-Hunt Law, none of the three primary aether energy variants possess either the classic form of electromagnetic energy which requires square superimposition of speed of light wave functions c, as c2, or the quantum form of energy, requiring E=hυ. The critical first step in the right direction may well be attributed to Dr. W. Reich, as it regards the fact that massfree energy couples two unequal wave functions, only one of which is electromagnetic and abides by the limit c. We then unravelled the threefold structure described above, and further showed that, in the case of longitudinal electric waves, the postulated equivalence (q=λqc) is merely phenomenological, as these waves are not restricted by the function c in their conveying of electric charge across space. It can further be demonstrated that all blackbody photons are bound by an upper frequency limit (64*1014 Hz), above which only ionizing photons are produced, and that all blackbody photons arise precisely from the interaction of massfree electric radiation with molecules of matter (including light leptons), whereby the energy of that radiation is locally converted into photon or electromagnetic radiation. In other words, all nonionizing electromagnetic energy appears to be secondary energy that results locally from the interaction of matter with massfree electric energy. It cannot therefore consist of the primary energy that is present in the vacuum, an energy that is neither virtual nor electromagnetic, but actual and concrete in its electric, thermal and antigravitic manifestations. Lastly, gravitational energy, being either the potential or the kinetic energy responsible for the force of attraction between units of matter, is a manifestation that also requires, much as electromagnetic radiation does, coupling of massfree energy to matter or to mass-energy.
The Tesla coil is a generator of a massfree electric energy flux that it transmits both by conduction through the atmosphere and by conduction through the ground. Tesla thought it did just that, but it has been since regarded instead (because of Maxwell, Hertz and Marconi) as a transmitter of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter operates by a consumption of massbound electric power in the primary, and by induction it generates in the coupled secondary two electric fluxes, one massbound in the coil conductor, and the other massfree in the body of the solenoid. Tesla also proposed and demonstrated a receiver for the massfree energy flux in the form of a second Tesla coil resonant with the first. The receiver coil must be identical and tuned to the transmitter coil; the capacitance of the antenna plate must match that of the transmitter plate; both transmitter and receiver coils must be grounded; and the receiver coil input and output must be unipolar, as if the coil were wired in series.
The generators of massfree energy with which we are concerned provide current pulses associated with a damped wave (DW) oscillation of much higher frequency than the pulse repetition frequency. A particular problem in recovering the massfree energy content of such pulses is provided by the damped wave oscillations. Although in our U.S. Pat. No. 5,416,391 we describe arrangements incorporating split phase motors to recover such energy, their efficiency is a great deal less than what should theoretically be attainable. Other workers such as Tesla and Reich, have encountered the same problem to an even greater degree.
FIG. 1 is а schematic view of a Tesla coil connected to a full-wave rectifier to form an energy conversion device
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a Tesla coil connected to a gold leaf electrometer.
According to the invention, a device for the conversion of massfree radiation (as herein defined) into electrical or mechanical energy comprises a transmitter of massfree electrical radiation having a damped wave component, a receiver of such radiation tuned to resonance with the
damped wave frequency of the transmitter, a co-resonant output circuit coupled into and extracting electrical or kinetic energy from the receiver, and at least one of structure defining a transmission cavity between the transmitter and the receiver, a full-wave rectifier in the co-resonant output circuit, and an oscillatory pulsed plasma discharge device incorporated in the co-resonant output circuit. The output circuit preferably comprises a full wave rectifier presenting a capacitance to the receiver, or an electric motor, preferably a split phase motor, presenting inductance to the receiver.