In nature, there is a unique alternative source of energy , environmentally friendly, renewable, easy to use, which is still nowhere to be used. This source - the electric field of the Earth .
The following describes a method of obtaining energy from this source. The method is based on the properties of the electric field of the Earth and the basic laws of electrostatics.
Our planet is electrically a semblance of a spherical capacitor, charged to about 300,000 volts. The inner sphere - the Earth's surface - is negatively charged, the outer sphere - ionosphere - positively. Quarantine is the Earth's atmosphere. (Figure 1)
Through atmosphere of constant ion flow and convective currents leakage capacitor, which reach many thousands of amperes. But despite this potential difference between the electrodes of the capacitor is not reduced.
This means that in nature there is a generator ( G ), which constantly fills the leak of charges from the capacitor plates. That generator is Earth's magnetic field, which rotates together with our planet in the solar wind flow.
To take advantage of this energy generator, you need to somehow connect it to the energy consumer.
Is okay to the negative pole - the Earth - simple. It's enough to make a good ground. Connection to the positive pole of the generator - the ionosphere - is a complex technical task, which we are going.
As with any charged capacitor, in our global capacitor exists an electric field. The intensity of this field is very unevenly distributed in height: it is maximal at the surface of the Earth and is about 150 V / m. With a height it decreases approximately exponentially, and at an altitude of 10 km is about 3% of the Earth's surface.
Thus, almost all the electric field is concentrated in the lower atmosphere, the Earth's surface. Intensity vector E. Earth field E directed generally downward. In his discussion, we will use only the vertical component of the vector. The electric field of the Earth, like any electric field acts on the charges with a certain force F , which is called the Coulomb force. If you multiply the amount of charge and the e-mail. field at this point, we get just the value of the Coulomb force F molecules. . This Coulomb force pushes the positive charges down to the ground, and negative - up into the clouds.
The electric field is a potential field of the Earth as well as any e-mail. field. Each point of this field corresponds to their potential. Points with the same potential form equipotential surfaces.
Establish on the Earth's surface vertical metal conductor and ground it. Let the upper point of the conductor is on at some level, U building e. field of the Earth. The electric field of the Earth, in accordance with the laws of electrostatics conduction electrons begin to move up to the upper point of the conductor, creating an excess of negative charges there. This movement of electrons will continue as long as the top conductor Toce not have the potential -U , equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the potential U e. field of the Earth, which is the highest point of the conductor.
This negative potential -U completely compensates the positive potential U el.polya Earth and the entire vehicle, including its top point, acquires the capacity of the Earth, which we take to be zero.
But an excess of negative charge at the top of the conductor will create its electric field.
We have a system of two e-mail. fields: e. Earth's field E 1 and E. field excess charges at the top of the conductor E 2 .
Fig. 2 shows vectors of these fields.
Voltage vector e. Earth's field E 1 near the conductor are the same everywhere in magnitude and direction.
Vectors same voltage electric. Field of the conductor at various points of the field have different values and directions. Fig. 2 on the right shows the intensity vectorE 2 of this e-mail. field. They converge at the top of the conductor, where concentrated excess conduction electrons.
According to the principle of superposition email. Fields tensions resulting email.field is equal to the geometric sum of the voltage of each of these fields.
Note that below the top of the conductor tension vectors E 1 and E 2 of the two fields are directed in opposite directions. Here, they cancel each other and the conductor email. field is zero.
Above the top of the conductor tension vectors of the two fields are directed in the same direction - down. Here they fold and give the total voltage electric. field.
Figure 3 shows the total e-mail. field in the vertical sectional plane through the wire. It is noteworthy that the potential of the conductor at all points equal to zero and at the same time on the upper point of the conductor is concentrated much tension total E. Field and conductor.
It is this e-mail. field and seeks to wrest the conduction electrons from the top of the conductor. However, the electrons enough energy to leave the vehicle. This energy is called the electron work function of a conductor, and for most metals, it is less than 5 eV - the value is very small. But electrons in a metal can not buy that kind of energy between collisions with the crystal lattice of the metal, and therefore remains on the surface of the conductor.
The question arises: what will happen with a guide if we will help the excess charge on top of the conductor to leave the vehicle?
The answer is simple: a negative charge at the top of the conductor is reduced, the external electric field inside the conductor will not be compensated and then begin moving conduction electrons up to the upper end of the conductor. Hence, a current flows through it. And if we can permanently remove the excess charges from the top of the conductor, it will always leak current. Now it is sufficient to cut the wire at any convenient location and include the load (energy consumer) - and the power plant is ready.
Figure 4 is a schematic diagram of such a facility.
Thus, we have closed electrical circuit between the electrodes of the global electric capacitor, which in turn is connected to the generator G , and incorporated in this circuit energy consumer (load). It remains to solve one important question: how to remove the excess charges from the top of the conductor?
To do this, a device that would help the conduction electrons leave the vehicle - electron emitter or the emitter.
The emitter may be constructed on the basis of small-capacity high-voltage generator which is capable of creating a corona discharge around the emitting electrode on the top conductor.
Such high-voltage generators used in industry dymoulavlivatelyah, air ionizers, electrostatic painting plants for metals and various household appliances.
The generator creates a conduction electron emitter around the spark, corona discharge, or wrist. Such a discharge is conductive plasma channel through which conduction electrons are free to flow into the atmosphere is already under the influence of el.polya Earth.
For this purpose you can use a transformer or a Tesla coil.
In 1891, Nikola Tesla created his famous high-voltage transformer, which he used to experiment and demonstrate their experiences.
Now it is a device called a Tesla coil (Tesla coil). In industry, the invention is not adopted. It is mainly used for all kinds of attractions.
During operation, the coil in its secondary winding generates a voltage of several million volts, which ionizes the air and creates a variety of electrical discharges - streamer, spark or corona discharge, depending on the input voltage.
Channels of these discharges in the ionized air is a good conductor for the conduction electrons, which seek to break out of a metal wire in the atmosphere. And the conduction electrons of the discharge channel is easy to leave the vehicle and go into the atmosphere is already under the influence of e-mail. field of the Earth, which focuses on the highest point of the conductor.
The shape and intensity of the discharge coil can within certain limits be adjusted from weak to strong corona arc depending on the intensity E. field of the Earth and the required power setting.
Let the upper point of the conductor is located at an altitude of 100 m., The average intensity of e. field height conductor E Wed = 100 V / m.
Then, the potential difference e. field between the Earth and the upper point of the conductor is numerically equal to:
U = h E Wed = 100 m * 100 / m = 10 000 volts.
Exactly the same value is negative and the compensating capacity at the top of the conductor. This is - a very real potential difference between the ground and the upper point of the conductor, which can be measured. However, conventional voltmeter to the wires will not be able to measure it - in the wires there is the same emf as the conductor, and the voltmeter shows 0.
The current in conductor depends mainly on the efficiency of the emitter. If using the emitter we can get current 10 A., the total capacity of the plant is 100 kW.
When working emitter liberated electrons accumulate in the atmosphere above the emitter and create a negatively charged cloud. El. field of this cloud is directed against E. Field and reduces it. In the presence of wind cloud crabs and its impact will be insignificant. In the absence of wind, the cloud is removed only Coulomb forces e. field over the emitter, forming convective jets directed upwards. In this case, the current installation will be limited to the current strength of the convective flow.
El. field above the Earth's surface has the characteristics that must be considered.
Above the level of the underlying surface such as the sea or the broad plain, the equipotential surface of the field are approximately parallel to each other, as shown in Fig. 2 left.
But as soon as it appears in the earth conductor, the field changes and becomes about the same as shown in Fig. 3.
The effect is the same as if it were a field of rose and hung on top of the conductor.Equipotential lines focused on the conductor, and therefore increased the intensity vector E.field.
At the same time at the base of the conductor email. field decreased. If two grounding conductor located near each other, then e-mail. the field will look like, as shown in Fig. 6.
All e-mail. box located above the earth conductor. Between these conductors at the surface e.field is close to zero.
Consequently, in a city with an emitter conductor must be raised above the roof of town houses and all kinds of antennas, flagpoles, trees and spiers, located nearby. Even safer raise the conductor and the emitter in a balloon.
This setting selects the power in the global generator .
In this connection there is another very important question - How will widespread widespread use of such devices in the electric field of the Earth?
Will this not lead to a weakening of email. field of the Earth?
We have no way to measure the power of the generator. But indirect evidence can be judged on its capacity.
On Earth, constantly raging a few hurricanes, tropical storms and cyclones are many. According to modern ideas, and estimated about a third of the power of the hurricane falls on its electrical component.
What is it - the electric component of the power of the hurricane?
Hurricane power proportional to the volume and speed of ascent of warm air in its heat tower - the central area of the hurricane.
Such a rise in air is mainly due to the difference in air density at the periphery of the hurricane and in the center - thermal tower, but not only. Part of the lift (about one-third.) Provides the electrical field of the earth.
The fact is that evaporates from the surface of the ocean storm water carries with it a huge kolichesvo negative charges.
From the standpoint of electrostatics stormy ocean is a vast field dotted with sharp points and edges, which are concentrated negative charges and tension email. field of the Earth. This - the electrostatic effect of the tip.
The evaporating water molecules in such conditions easily capture negative charges and carry them with you. And the electric field of the Earth in full accordance with Coulomb's law is moving up the charges, adding air lift.
And this additive is about one third of full lift, and hence the power of a hurricane. Thus global electrical generator consumes a part of its capacity to enhance atmospheric vortices on the planet - hurricanes, storms, cyclones and so on.
But that power consumption does not affect the magnitude of the electric field of the Earth.
If we consider that the average power exceeds the power of the hurricane all the power plants of the world, it can be concluded that broad and widespread use of this energy will not affect the electrical parameters of the planet.
As a result of our actions, we connect to the energy consumer global generator electricity . To the negative pole - the Earth - we are connected by a conventional metal wire (ground), and to the positive terminal - the ionosphere - with the help of a very specific guide - convection current.
Convective currents - this electrical currents caused orderly transfer of charged particles. In nature, they are common. The most powerful of them - is the hurricanes and rising air in the intertropical convergence zone, which carry a huge amount of negative charges in the upper troposphere.
From the above we can draw the following conclusions:
The energy source is a simple and easy to use.
The output is the most convenient form of energy - electricity.
Source environmentally friendly: no emissions, no noise, etc.
Installation is simple to manufacture and maintain.
Extremely low cost of the energy produced, and a lot of other advantages.
The electric field of the earth is subject to fluctuations in winter it is stronger than in the summer, it reaches a maximum daily 19 hours to UTC is also dependent on weather conditions. But these fluctuations do not exceed 30% of its average value.
In some rare cases, under certain weather conditions, the intensity of this field may increase several times.
During Rain el.pole varies within wide limits and may change to the opposite direction, but this is a small area directly under thunderstorm cell in a short time.
Author: KURILOV Yuri Mikhailovich, engineer-navigator, St. Petersburg