Sergey Litovchenko , tall, slender, tanned, fifty, Ph.D., Honored Inventor of the RSFSR, the author of 60 inventions, casually opens a briefcase, pulls out a few details about the size of a bowl, easily connects them and sticks plug into the power outlet.
So tempted to bet with him that homemade will not work. Very much it is clumsy and artless-looking. See what's inside one of the engines, and the inventor of ten (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. The unit of the new engine: a stator, a rectifier and the rotors - dielectric and metal. Stator - a plastic cylinder with electrodes (wires) inside, which in turn fed the high potentials of opposite signs (red and blue).
Normal cylinder made of caprolon 54 mm high. On its inner surface with a diameter 146 mm and axially uniformly packed individually 36 bronze wire 0.8 mm in diameter. Half of them is fed by the high potential rectifier positive mark, and negative on the other half. The hollow cylinder is inserted again kaprolonovymi blank without any electrode of 40 mm in height, 140 mm in diameter and weighing 200 g, however, possible to use aluminum and 36 with asterisk rays. That's all wisdom.
If you are familiar with electrical engineering, that comes to mind is the nearest analogue electrostatic motor (Fig. 2).There, too, on the stator high voltage is applied, but it is necessary to apply and the rotor. And, besides, of course, we need brushes to the rotor spinning is recharged and its half-disks pushed again from the stator plate.
Fig. 2. In a conventional electrostatic motor rotor half-disks P1 and P2 are repelled from the fixed stator plates C1 and C2.Brushes change the charges on the rotor semi-wild, and the direction of the torque remains unchanged.
On the crucial role of brushes probably should stay apart. After all, in fact, we know only the AC electric machine (or charge). DC machine (or charge) is obtained from the first, complementing their rectifiers, electrical or mechanical. This is understandable: for a long time unthinkable to push the rotor in the same side of the forces of the same current (or charge) or the machine must be unacceptably large or current (charge) must be monstrously large. So, brushless machines simply can not be, and this truth for many decades considered once and for all proven. Hundreds theorists, thousands of inventors themselves were convinced of its rightness and convinced all subsequent generations of electricians ...
The easiest fan: its rotor rotates between the electrodes with a constant voltage.
But the "miracle" is still going on. In kaprolonovymi cylinder-stator with a creak and a light rustle it begins to gain momentum kaprolonovymi Plural rotor, which turns into a furiously rotating oval in a few seconds. Between the rotor and the stator electrodes skips sparks from the motor of smells of ozone, as in a thunderstorm. If you turn out the light, annulus mysteriously flickering softly crackling electric shocks.
The motor shaft is possible, albeit with difficulty, slow down your fingers, because the torque does not exceed 40 - 80 gf∙cm. Stopped cold rotor to touch, and it is not surprising: different modifications of engine power consuming 4 - 6 W at very low currents (0.2 - 0.6 mA), but at high voltages (1 - 8 kV).
"The rotor can be rotated in any direction," - says the inventor. He holds the shaft and scrolls through it in the opposite direction. Billets again, just squeaking, gaining frenzied speed, 25 - 40 in the second. Then Sergey shows us and other cars, he created together with N. Timchenko. We agree that it's not change when the rotor is made of a dielectric or metal. Only in the first case, the cylinders can be smooth, while the second necessarily radial, star-shaped, like a spoked bicycle wheel, but without a rim. By the way, if the rotor is an asterisk, then an orientation of its rays contributes to preferred rotation in one direction, but opposite movement is still not prohibited. Discharges from the stator electrodes commonly drain towards the moving rotor points.
What is striking, these engines? Well, firstly, the absence of brushes. Consequently, the operation does not have to worry about their abrasion, fracture, wear and tear, the losses due to the circular fire on the collector. Secondly, its utmost simplicity: shaft with glides, but the stator electrodes. Third, the speed of rotation of the rotor, and which in any direction possible. It is possible that the speed will be able to improve even more, since there are no rotating field, as in AC machines, restrictions on such an increase is not expected.
Now leave the facts of the matter: how the engine is running (although Litovchenko, Timchenko and connected to their studies dozens of experts have already gathered solid experimental data). It's time to step on the shifting path of hypotheses: why is it actually work? And the professionals and amateurs of science have expressed a lot of speculation about the reasons for the rotation of the rotors. If we discard the assumption that strange phenomenon described by the much more obscure influences of "black holes", fluctuations of the gravitational field, homogeneous physical vacuum, it will be 5 - 6 good-quality engineering opinions. Briefly about them can say the following.
One of the assumptions rotational force due to the effect discovered by H. Hertz in 1881 and described in detail his compatriot G. Quincke 15 years. This effect is already well studied by scientists in Moscow and Minsk, occupied magneto machines, electric pumps liquid.
Its essence boils down to the spontaneous rotation of the dielectric sample in the electric field due to the fact that the liquid, the so-called electrorheological Wednesday, polarized, and then shifts the Coulomb force field, dragging the rotor. However, calculations show that the traction is much less those that develops unusual engine. In addition, Hertz Quincke effect is manifested in many high voltages (10 - 20 kV). And again, if the sample cause a thin metal coating, the effect disappears, and at Litovchenko fine spinning aluminum sprockets. Finally, there is no question of any special fluid.
Similarly, there is no second hypothesis of the electric wind, supposedly dripped from the rotor and extending his reactive forces. After all the charges flow from the stator electrodes toward the rotor movement and the rotor during movement. And in both cases they have to brake rotor. Again in plasma flows as a small amount of movement, that it can not be the cause of revolution, for which, as shown by measurements of strength are approximately 10 H.
Another vulnerable third explanation of the principle of the new motor. Proponents of this view recall the experiments of Otto von Guericke, went down in history for its Magdeburg hemispheres (two four horses could not evacuate razyal hemisphere, pressed to each other atmospheric pressure). So, in 1660 Guericke electrified palm sulfur ball with the child's head. Fuzzies attracted, and by touching the ball, repelled. On the electric dance of papers knew Newton. Today it is well known that in an electric field of the body and are attracted to the polarized charge, the field source. Touching, they are charged the same sign, and therefore repel.
Initially Litovchenko himself tried to use an electrostatic induction "on the forehead." Metal bead, paper tape, stick textolite darted back and forth between the plates of the capacitor (3), in one of the earlier articles (SS Litovchenko NM Timchenko. "The phenomenon of the direct conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy." Technology communications, vol. 7, 1978) describes that the vibrational motion actually managed to go to the rotary.
Fig. 3. Electric metronome: between the plates of a plane capacitor is polarized ball is attracted to the nearest of them charged and repelled, for the other, and is recharged again repelled, etc... Here you can watch a video of the experiment.
But how could this happen? - that is the question. It seemed that the breakthrough provided by the rotor inertia and elasticity. But if the rotor is shifted by attraction to the stator induced charges, then he hesitated and spending friction primary impulse, he eventually would have taken a stable position, the electrode against the electrode, once in the potential well. But it is not, the rotor spins, so, what are the other forces. That they then need to find.
Another, fourth, the hypothesis can be called a "bit like a brush." Induced charge after approaching the stator electrode allegedly flows from the rotor, and one is already neutral, mechanically scrolled further. Next, once again leads the electrode on the rotor charges and attracts them to him along with him. They flow down again, the rotor jumps and so on. D.
Undoubtedly, such a "smart" behaving, bit really play the role of electro, pulling the rotor in one direction. If this were in fact the invention of such a discharge rectifier technology would bring in a lot of benefits. Something can see no reason preferred one-way charge and discharge, and the charge distribution on the stator and the rotor must be strictly uniform.
On the other hand, the half-cycle rectifier bit seems plausible. After all, the combination of voltages, currents, and gaps in the new engine corresponds exactly to the ignition zone of self-discharge in the air (so-called Paschen curve). Moreover, the operation of the engine is clearly dependent on the weather: pressure, humidity, temperature. Is this not evidence of "discharge" of rotation causes a confirmation commutator role glow?
But no less convincingly assume that simply mask the true level of the rotor displacement causes. Moreover, the discharge currents impair the efficiency of the engine: in one of the models of the mechanical shaft power is 0.16 W, and from high voltage power consumed 4.8 watts. It is easy to see that efficiency does not exceed 3.4%. Of course, for the mass of the engine, this figure is scanty. That would remove the bits from the stator electrodes! If the rotor will spin continues, then the hypothesis of "rank as a brush" disappears. In addition, the efficiency will inevitably rise!
The fifth suggestion appears based on the following data. The measurements were done by Litovchenko, showed that the steady engine speed depends on the square of the voltage across the electrodes. Growing tension in half, turnover increased by 4 times. Moreover, the torque and the shaft is also proportional to the square of the voltage. The conclusion is obvious: the value of charges on the stator and rotor are directly dependent on the voltage. Consequently, the rotational forces depend on the product of the charge, that is the reason for the appearance of these forces is clearly Coulomb. Simply put, it is the attraction of charges on the stator electrodes and the charge as something imposed on the rotor ensures promotion. Now, it would be necessary to find the cause of the reduction of these forces after the rotor stator electrode beam passes. But the reason for this has long been known.The charges on the stator electrodes is not constant in time, they are constantly pulsating, changing the electrical parameters for high voltage circuit!
Each rotor beam changes capacitance gap between adjacent electrodes. So, in the stator circuit current flows, recharging the electrodes. Current ripple frequency depends on the capacitance and inductance of the circuit, and is rigidly connected to the rotor turns. When the phase of the electrical and mechanical vibrations will be shifted by 20-30 0 , the rotor will be pulling harder braking and accelerate it.
If this is true, there is voltage on the electrodes of the stator varies cyclically with a gap, then Litovchenko invented the self-oscillating electromechanical system consisting of a rotor and stator electric circuit. About the converter is shown in Figure 4. The source of energy - rectifier or charged capacitor (tested by experience). The exciting current in the stator vibrations due to "guidance on charges rotor rays. The beam is drawn into the rotor gap, the capacity of the stator circuit increases, the charge stator electrodes increases, the attractive force of the rotor stator becomes larger.
Finally rotor stator beam slips electrode force between them weakens because the charge decreases in value. The rotor spins faster and faster, until friction in the axes balances the torque. It is easy to see that in the stator circuit are set a little damped oscillations of the current, depending mainly on the voltage of the electrodes, the rotor inertia and friction in the axes. All this can be measured experimentally, about this and concerned specialists are busy.
Fig. 4. The auto oscillatory electromechanical transducer self-excited by electrostatic guidance: a) calculation model, b) fluctuations in current in the stator and c) the mechanical rotation of the rotor with a frequency w, d) phase plane "current - the charge of the capacitor."
The general mathematical theory of oscillation is developed in detail, but the analytical solutions of nonlinear differential equations of second order work out infrequently. Self-oscillating converters are used very widely is the anchor clockwork radio tube oscillators. To some extent, the new engine can be likened to the parametric oscillator, built in 1932, LI Mandelstam and NDPapaleksi. And here and there, changing capacitance of the circuit, though for different reasons. Energy is taken from a mechanical actuator, or by a high voltage. The analogy of the new engine and the mechanisms, using forced oscillations, but instead of imposing a given frequency electric source is selected by itself, along with the mechanical frequency of the rotor.
It is interesting that in the experiments Litovchenko oil columns or tinted air fluctuate around the electrodes, therefore, pulse currents in the stator circuit. It is easy to notice in the past arguments about the principle of operation of the engine, we proceeded from the fact that the rotor is a metallic, star. If the dielectric rotor blank, the picture becomes even more complicated, but it does not lose its clarity. By rotating the rotor continuous strongly deformed, therefore, the gaps are changing, and with them, and capacity. The mechanism of action remains the same, but the higher frequency oscillations, and less phase and amplitude.Share dielectric rotor part is no need, it vibrates itself, deforms and bends. By the way, that's why when the engine sound clicks, scratches and bumps of links.
So, it seems that invented the self-oscillating inverter brushless electric and mechanical energy. It originally changed the oscillating circuit capacitance due to electrostatic induction. Successfully matched the shape and material of the rotors empirically the necessary condition for self-excitation: after a hard massive rotor inevitably stop hitting the equilibrium position.
The bad news is that the construction of low efficiency, but it is, as they say, will come with time always will be found ways to improve the efficiency of work. Even if the level eliminate friction losses in the rotor axis and stator electrical losses in the circuit remain. The engine speed is relatively stable, but give the load on the shaft is dangerous: due to the soft load characteristic resonance type (voltage resonance) turnovers dramatically changed. That is why the electric power may not turn out, although in principle there is nothing stopping to introduce high-speed regulation of voltage on the stator. It is possible that new converters will find their place in the low-current technology in the form of vibrations generators, regulators, stabilizers, electrical frequency, mechanical speed setting devices.
But do not forget this is only speculation. The search continues. Coming home after work, Litovchenko locked in the bathroom, where something solder, grinds and glues. His letters filled enthusiasts. To research joined dozens of scientific laboratories. And now the latest news from Kaluga: If the file is not a constant stator and alternating voltage, the engine runs better!
Submission of an alternating voltage to the electrodes of the stator extremely expand the range of the new engine customers, because now appear redundant rectifiers. Simplify and reduce the cost and without significant low-cost design, and physics of this process is unlikely to change. Indeed, the industry is considered a variable voltage whose value is pulsating 50 times per second. For us, this frequency appears to be great, but for the electrons, creating electric currents, it is almost invisible.Therefore, such a slowly varying electric field is still considered to be static, or rather quasi-static. That is why the search for explaining the principle of operation Litovchenko engine remains in the class of machines electrostatic and better quasi .
It may seem that this whole Kaluga invention is not so important to pay him much attention. But no, Litovchenko job, frankly, should be considered as outstanding for at least three reasons.
Firstly, in electrical engineering that is not visible as electric vehicles simple structure. The most massive engines, on whose shoulders rests the whole world is truly industry, asynchronous. They rotor is extremely simple, without much exaggeration it can be called a metal disc. A machine Litovchenko easier! Is not this event? Since they do not have any windings, there is no need for electrical insulation of conductors most time-consuming work in the manufacture of electric motors of any type.
The second argument: the Coulomb force infinitely more magnetic, but this advantage is not commonly used because of the difficulties of retaining the charges on the conductors. Breakdown of insulation gaps negates all the advantages of electrostatic machines. It's a shame, but disposable contact materials do not allow wide use of the Coulomb force, and we have to do much with less Lorenz Ampere.
It just comes third argument in favor of a new motor: electrical inevitably shift towards replenishing electrostatic designs, radically changing its appearance in the coming decades. With the help of electrostatic fields, engineers have learned to paint, to spin, to make an artificial pile, catching flue gas dust, but it is only the first news coming spring called "electrotechnology".
See also: ELECTROSTATIC ENGINE WORKING PRINCIPLE