Two parallel metal rod, between metal cylinder ... It would seem that this kit is deprived of any meaning, but if applied to terminals a constant voltage, the cylinder begins to rotate. At physics textbooks, this effect is not yet described - Kaluga inventor Sergei Litovchenko discovered it recently.
More than three centuries ago, the inventor of the air pump, the German scientist Otto von Guericke put unusual at the time the experiment. He electrified by friction big ball of sulfur released into the fluff room. Fluff sat on the ball and then took off, to the amazement of those present. Today, every schoolchild is clear that the ball is pulled uncharged feather, gave her a part of his charge and two charges - fluff and fluff shara- forced off. Then, three hundred years ago, the first time Guericke proved that there are forces of attraction and repulsion between charged bodies.
How to use these powers? The issue date - among the many modern devices, electrostatic devices is relatively small. Litovchenko managed to observe in experiments Guericke that until now eluded scientists views: feather and ball - oscillating system! If Guericke put next two balls and have charged them with electricity of opposite signs, a feather would fluctuate evenly between them. Vibrations may be used to measure the time, in mechanics, in electronic devices. Finally, the oscillatory motion can be converted into translational and rotated.
Of course, a ball and a feather was only the first impulse - to his Litovchenko experiment using two metal plates, which are connected to the high voltage source, and a light metal ball. As believed the experimenter, the ball began to fluctuate evenly between the plates. Then, the metal plate replaced by a ball. She vibrated like a tuning fork.
Intended to supplement the structure Litovchenko ratchet and the rotor in order to convert vibrations into rotation, but ... What caused him to be placed between the plates of the rotor, it is hard to say. Maybe pure curiosity, perhaps, the inventor of the intuition; somehow or other, the rotor began to spin.
The engine continued to work and after the plate was replaced with rods. So, it was not in the form of wires. And what?
In a conventional electromagnetic motor is clear: the magnetic field of the stator and rotor are directed oppositely. The stator is rigidly fixed, and the strength of the fields interaction causes the rotor to rotate. The collector mounted on the rotor winding timely switches it to the magnetic fields are always in opposition.
The engine Litovchenko magnetic fields there. Yes, and where they come from, if the current does not flow through the bars? As is known, the magnetic field causes the electrons are moving. But if there is no current, and the engine does not consume electricity, how does it work?
Litovchenko connected in series with a voltage source of the current meter. The current was still. Small, in millionths of an ampere, but it was! "Abnormal" motor obey the "normal" law of conservation of energy which states that energy can not take out of nowhere. Contact current rotation of the rotor further experiments confirmed that when the rods move away from the rotor, the current disappeared, stopped and rotation.
How current is converted into rotation of the motor? While we can only offer a hypothesis.
Probably many have seen glowing in the evening or at night, softly hissing discharge around the insulators of high-voltage power lines. This corona discharge, or as it is also called the crown. The physical essence of this category is that the high voltage ionizes the air molecules, turning them into conductors of electric charges. According to most physicists, the crown can transfer charges from the engine to the rotor bars, electrify it as a feather electrified ball in the experiment Guericke. Fly like a feather the rotor can not - it is fixed. That is his turn, trying to remove his electrified side of the rod-electrode. But, as we said, this is just a hypothesis.
Working with high voltage is dangerous. Litovchenko once advised grounded rotor. But his ground - then to withdraw the charges. According to the "ring" hypothesis, grounded rotor can not rotate. Yet Litovchenko tried to ground the rotor. The rotation speed has increased ....
And against the hypothesis that readily rotated between the rods not only metal, but also plastic rotors of different shapes and even wooden spool from the thread!
Litovchenko has experienced dozens of engines of different power, different sizes. All of them work not only on the DC, and AC, although the "variable" crown, according to physics, can only slightly rock the rotor.
In general, the principle of operation of the engine is not clear, but today this simple, unusually cheap electric motor can be used in practice.
Surrender to the effect observed Litovchenko, physicists or part of the puzzles will be the share of our current readers - time will tell.
A. Matveev 1983.
ELECTROSTATIC ENGINE WORKING PRINCIPLE (en subtitles)
See also: ELECTROSTATIC MOTOR LITOVCHENKO